Orbital fractures are commonly seen with midfacial trauma. Fractures may be limited to the internal orbital skeleton. This type includes blow-out and blow-in patterns, as seen in isolated fractures of the orbital floor, medial wall, and roof.Fractures may involve the orbital rim. An inferior, lateral, or superior rim fracture may be an isolated injury, or it may be contiguous with an internal-wall fracture.Fractures may be associated with other fractures of the facial skeleton. Orbit involvement is seen in various facial fracture patterns, including zygomaticomaxillary (ZMC), naso-orbito-ethmoid (NOE), frontal-sinus, Le Fort II, and Le Fort III fracture patterns.
The aim of orbital reconstruction is to achieve normal bony projection, to reposition the globe, to release any entrapped orbital soft tissue, and to reconstitute normal orbital volume.